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Conditionals and Mixed Conditionals in English (PDF)

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In this lesson, we will explain the conditionals and mixed conditionals in English. There are several structures in the English language that we call conditionals or if conditionals. Conditionals in English refer to sentences that express a conditional relationship, where the outcome of one event depends on the occurrence of another. They are typically expressed using “if” clauses.

 

Conditionals in English

Conditional sentences have two parts -if clause and the -main clause. There are four main types of conditionals in English:

Zero conditional: Used to describe facts or general truths.
Formula: (If + present simple, present simple)

Example: If someone prays for success, God shows them ways to be successful . (present simple in both clauses)

First conditional: Used to describe a possible future event, given a certain condition.
Formula: (If + present simple, future simple)

Example: If it rains tomorrow, I will not go to school. (present simple in first clause, future simple in second clause)

Second conditional: Used to describe an imaginary or unlikely situation in the present.
Formula: (If + past simple, would + infinitive)

Example: If I won the lottery, I would buy a new house. (past simple in first clause, conditional form in second clause)

Third conditional: Used to describe an event in the past that did not happen.
Formula: (If + past perfect, would have + past participle)

Example: If I had studied harder, I would have graduated from the university.
(past perfect in first clause, conditional perfect in second clause)

See the table below for a guide on which conditional to use depending on how certain it is:

Type of ConditionalCertainty
Zero conditional100% – will always happen
1st conditional50%~90% – will probably happen
2nd conditional1%~40% – can happen, but probably won’t
3rd conditional0%- impossible, can’t happen because in the past
Type of ConditionalFormulaExample
Zero ConditionalIf + present simple, present simpleIf you heat water, it boils.
First ConditionalIf + present simple, future simpleIf it rains, I will stay at home.
Second ConditionalIf + past simple, would + infinitiveIf it rained, I would stay at home.
Third ConditionalIf + past perfect, would have + past participleIf it had rained, I would have stayed at home.
Conditionals in English

 

Check Also:
The Eight Parts of Speech in English (PDF)
Free English Grammar Books (PDF)
Learn 12 English Tenses with 36 Example Sentences

 

Mixed Conditionals in English

Mixed conditionals in English are a combination of two different conditional forms, where the “if” clause is in one form and the main clause is in another. They are used to talk about hypothetical or imaginary situations that are based on both present and past events. Here’s a table showing the formula for mixed conditionals in English:

Type of Mixed ConditionalFormulaExample
Second Conditional + Present ResultIf + past simple, would/could/might + present simpleIf I had taken that job, I would be rich now.
Third Conditional + Present ResultIf + past perfect, would/could/might + present simpleIf I had studied more, I would have passed the exam, but I wouldn’t be working in my current job now.
Third Conditional + Future ResultIf + past perfect, would/could/might + future simpleIf I had gone to college, I would have gotten a better job, but now I will never have that opportunity.

 

It’s important to keep in mind that the order of the clauses in a mixed conditional can impact the meaning of the sentence.

Conditionals & Mixed Conditionals PDF

  Conditionals Exercises PDF – download

  Mixed Conditionals Exercises PDF – download

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