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Present Perfect Tense (comparison+pdf)

The Present Perfect Simple tense suggests completion while the Present Perfect Progressive suggests something is unfinished.

The Present Perfect Simple is used:

for actions/states which started in the past and are still happening.
example:I have known him for three years. (I still know him.)

for past actions whose results are connected to the present.
example:The baby has spilt the milk.(The floor is dirty.)

to announce news, news, changes or events that affect the present.
example:He has lost all his money.

for past actions whose time is not stated, or for recently completed actions.
example:He has travelled all over Turkey.
I have just finished my homework.

with today,this morning/week etc., if these periods of time are not finished at the time of speaking.
example:He has written two letters this morning. (It is still morning)

with adjectives in the superlative degree or expressions like: the only/first/second… etc.
example:This is the most expensive suit I’ve ever bought.
This is the third time Jack has visited Turkey.

Time expressions for the Present Perfect Simple: since, for, just, yet, already, how long, ever, never, etc.

 

The Present Perfect Progressive is used:

to emphasise the duration of an action which started in the past and is still happening. The action may or may not be completed.
example:They have been studying English for five years.

for actions that have been going on up to the recent past with obvious results in the present.
example:“Why is the road so slippery? -Because it has been raining”

for actions which are temporary rather than permanent.
example:He has been working overtime this week as there is a lot of work to do at the office.

to show anger, annoyance, irritation or to demand an explanation for a very recent action.
example:Who has been wearing my coat?
Why have you been crying?

Time expressions for the Present Progressive: how long, for, since, all day/morning,etc.



DIFFERENCES:

The Present Perfect Simple is used:

for permanent situations.
example:She has lived in London all her life.
to emphasise the result of an action.
example:I’ve called him three times this morning.
for actions that are already finished.
example:Look at the car. Sam has washed it.

 

The Present Perfect Progressive is used:

for temporary situations.
example:He has been staying with friends for two months.
to emphasise the duration of an action.
example:I’ve been calling him since ten o’clock.
for actions that may or may not be finished.
example:Sam has been washing the car for an hour.

The Present Perfect Simple is used:

for past events which have a connection to the present.
(the exact time is not mentioned.)
example:I’ve found a new job.
for events that began in the past but still happening in the present.
example:I have lived in Turkey for ten years. (I still live in Turkey.)
with today,this morning/week, etc. if these periods of time are not finished at the time of speaking.
example:Tom has called me twice this morning. (The morning is not over yet.)

 

The Past Simple is used:

for completed past events which are not connected to the present. (The exact time is mentioned.)
example:I found a new job three months ago.
for events that took place for a certain period of time in the past but are over at the time of speaking.
example:Sam lived in Turkey for three years but now he lives in New York.
with today,this morning/week etc. if these periods of time are finished.
example:Tom called me twice this morning. (The morning is over.)

 

NOTE:
They’ve been to Italy. (They are back now.)
They’ve gone to Italy. (They are still there.)

feel, live, sleep, study, teach, wait, work, etc can be used in the Present Perfect Simple or the Present Perfect Progressive with no difference in meaning.

He has worked in that factory for three years.
He has been working in that factory for three years.

Download Present Perfect Tense PDF that you can read anywhere.

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